The simple thing about Ageing
Ageing or ageing (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older. The term refers especially to the citizenry, many animals, and fungi, whereas for instance bacteria,
perennial plants and a few simple animals are potentially biologically immortal. within the broader sense, ageing can ask single cells within an organism which have ceased dividing (cellular senescence) or to the population of a species.
In humans, ageing represents the buildup of changes during a person over time and may encompass physical, psychological, and social changes.
response time, for instance, may slow with age, while knowledge of world events and wisdom may expand. Ageing is among the best-known risk factors for many human diseases: of the roughly 150,000 people that die every day across the world, about two-thirds die from age-related causes.
The causes of ageing are uncertain; current theories are assigned to the damage concept, whereby the buildup of injury (such as DNA oxidation) may cause biological systems to fail,
or to the programmed ageing concept, whereby problems with the interior processes (epigenomic maintenance like DNA methylation may cause ageing. Programmed ageing shouldn’t be confused with programmed necrobiosis (apoptosis).
Additionally, there are often other reasons, which may speed up the speed of ageing in organisms including citizenry like obesity and compromised system.
Mortality is often wont to define biological ageing, which refers to an organism’s increased rate of death because it progresses throughout its lifecycle and increases its age.
Other possible thanks to defining ageing are thru functional definitions, of which there are two main types the primary describes how varying sorts of deteriorative changes that accumulate within the lifetime of a
post-maturation organism can leave it vulnerable, resulting in a decreased ability of the organism to survive. The second may be a senescence-based definition;
this describes age-related changes in an organism that increase its death rate over time by negatively affecting its vitality and functional performance.
a crucial distinction to form is that biological ageing isn’t an equivalent thing because the accumulation of diseases associated with old age; disease may be a blanket term wont to describe a process within an organism that causes a decrease in its functional ability.
Demographic drivers of population Ageing
The size and age composition of a population is determined jointly by three demographic processes: fertility, mortality and migration.
All regions have experienced substantial increases in anticipation since 1950. because the anticipation at birth increases, improvements in survival at older ages account for a growing proportion of the general improvement in longevity.
While declining fertility and increasing longevity are the key drivers of population Ageing globally, international migration has also contributed to changing population age structures in some countries and regions.
In countries that are experiencing large immigration flows, international migration can slow the Ageing process, a minimum of temporarily, since migrants tend to be within the young working ages. However, migrants who remain within the country eventually will age into the older population.
Key Conferences on Ageing
To begin addressing these issues, the overall Assembly convened the primary World Assembly on Ageing in 1982, which produced a 62-point “Vienna International Plan of Action on Ageing.”
It involved specific action on such issues as health and nutrition, protecting elderly consumers, housing and environment, family, welfare, income security and employment, education, and therefore the collection and analysis of research data.
In 1991, the overall Assembly adopted the United Nations Principles for Older Persons, enumerating 18 entitlements for older persons — concerning independence, participation, care, self-fulfilment and dignity.
the subsequent year, the International Conference on Ageing met to follow-up on the Plan of Action, adopting a Proclamation on Ageing. Following the Conference’s recommendation,
the UN General Assembly declared 1999 the International Year of Older Persons. The International Day of Older Persons is widely known on 1 October per annum.
Action on behalf of the ageing continued in 2002 when the Second World Assembly on Ageing was held in Madrid. getting to design international policy on ageing for the 21st century,
it adopted a Political Declaration and therefore the Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing. The Plan of Action involved changes in attitudes, policies and practices within the least levels to fulfil the big potential of ageing in the twenty-first century.
Its specific recommendations for action give priority to older persons and development, advancing health and well-being into adulthood, and ensuring enabling and supportive environments
Ageing versus immortality
Human beings and members of other species, especially animals, age and die. Fungi, too, can age. In contrast, many species can be considered immortal: for example,
bacteria fission to produce daughter cells, strawberry plants grow runners to produce clones of themselves, and animals in the genus Hydra have a regenerative ability by which they avoid dying of old age.
Early life forms on Earth, starting at least 3.7 billion years ago, were single-celled organisms. Such organisms (Prokaryotes, Protozoans, algae) multiply by fission into daughter cells; thus do not age and are innately immortal.
Ageing and mortality of the individual organism became possible with the evolution of sexual reproduction, which occurred with the emergence of the fungal/animal kingdoms approximately a billion years ago, and the evolution of seed-producing plants 320 million years ago.
The sexual organism could henceforth pass on some of its genetic material to produce new individuals and could itself become disposable with respect to the survival of its species.
This classic biological idea has however been perturbed recently by the discovery that the bacterium E. coli may split into distinguishable daughter cells, which opens the theoretical possibility of “age classes” among bacteria.
Even within humans and other mortal species, there are cells with the potential for immortality: cancer cells that have lost the ability to die when maintained in a cell culture such as the
HeLa cell line, and specific stem cells such as germ cells (producing ova and spermatozoa). In artificial cloning, adult cells can be rejuvenated to embryonic status and then used to grow a new tissue or animal without aging.
Normal human cells however die after about 50 cell divisions in laboratory culture (the Hayflick Limit, discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1961)
Effects in Ageing
A number of characteristic ageing symptoms are experienced by a majority or by a big proportion of humans during their lifetimes.
Teenagers lose the young child’s ability to listen to high-frequency sounds above 20 kHz.Wrinkles develop mainly thanks to photoaging, particularly
affecting sun-exposed areas (face). After peaking within the mid-20s, female fertility declines. After age 30 the mass of a physical body is decreased until 70 years then shows damping oscillations.
Muscles have reduced capacity of responding to exercise or injury and loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is common. VO2 max and maximum pulse decline.
Hand strength and mobility are decreased during the ageing process. this stuff include, “hand and finger strength and skill to regulate submaximal pinch force and maintain a gentle precision pinch posture, manual speed, and hand sensation”
People over 35 years aged are at increased risk for losing strength within the ciliary muscle which results in difficulty that specializes in close objects, or presbyopia.
most of the people experience presbyopia by age 45–50. The cause is lens hardening by decreasing levels of α-crystallin, a process which can be sped up by higher temperatures.
Around age 50, hair turns grey. Pattern hair loss by the age of fifty affects about 30–50% of males and 1 / 4 of females.
Menopause typically occurs between 44 and 58 years aged.
In the 60–64 age cohort, the incidence of osteoarthritis rises to 53%. Only 20%, however, report disabling osteoarthritis at this age.
Almost half people older than 75 have deafness (presbycusis) inhibiting speech. Many vertebrates like fish, birds and amphibians don’t suffer presbycusis in adulthood as they’re ready
to regenerate their cochlear sensory cells, whereas mammals including humans have genetically lost this ability.
By age 80, quite half all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.
Frailty, a syndrome of decreased strength, physical activity, physical performance and energy, affects 25% of these over 85.
Atherosclerosis is assessed as an ageing disease.
It results in disorder (for example stroke and heart attack)which globally is that the commonest explanation for death. Vessel ageing causes vascular remodelling and loss of arterial elasticity and as a result, causes the
stiffness of the vasculature.
Recent evidence suggests that age-related risk of death plateaus after age 105. the utmost human lifespan is usually recommended to be 115 years. The oldest reliably recorded human was Jeanne Calment who died in 1997 at 122.
Dementia becomes more common with age. About 3% of individuals between the ages of 65 and 74, 19% between 75 and 84, and nearly half those over 85 years aged have dementia.
The spectrum ranges from mild cognitive impairment to the neurodegenerative diseases of Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease, paralysis agitans and Lou Gehrig’s disease.
Furthermore, many sorts of memory decline with ageing, but not long-term memory or public knowledge like vocabulary definitions, which usually increases or remains steady until late adulthood.
Intelligence declines with age, though the speed varies counting on the sort and should actually remain steady throughout most of the lifespan,
dropping suddenly only as people near the top of their lives. Individual variations in the rate of cognitive decline may therefore be explained in terms of individuals having different lengths of life.
There are changes to the brain: after 20 years aged there’s a tenth reduction each decade within the total length of the brain’s myelinated axons.
Age may result in visual defect, whereby non-verbal communication is reduced, which may cause isolation and possible depression. Older adults, however,
might not suffer depression the maximum amount as younger adults and were paradoxically found to possess improved mood despite declining physical health.
degeneration causes vision loss and increases with age, affecting nearly 12% of these above the age of 80. This degeneration is caused by systemic changes within the circulation of waste products and by the growth of abnormal vessels around the retina.
A distinction is often made between “proximal ageing” (age-based effects that happen due to factors within the recent past) and “distal ageing” (age-based differences which will be traced to a cause during a person’s youth, like childhood poliomyelitis).
Ageing is among the best-known risk factors for many human diseases. Of the roughly 150,000 people that die every day across the world, about two-thirds—100,000 per day—die from age-related causes. In industrialized nations, the proportion is higher, reaching 90%
At present, researchers are barely starting to understand the biological basis of ageing even in relatively simple and short-lived organisms like yeast.
Less still is understood of mammalian ageing, partially thanks to the for much longer lives of even small mammals like the mouse (around 3 years).
A model organism for studying of ageing is that the nematode C. elegans.
because of its short lifespan of 2–3 weeks, our ability to simply perform genetic manipulations or to suppress gene activity with RNA interference, or other factors.
Most known mutations and RNA interference targets that reach lifespan were first discovered in C. elegans.
The factors proposed to influence biological ageing fall under two main categories, programmed and damage-related. Programmed factors follow a biological timetable,
perhaps one which may be a continuation of the one that regulates childhood growth and development. This regulation would depend upon changes in organic phenomenon that affect the systems liable for maintenance,
repair and defense responses. Damage-related factors include internal and environmental assaults to living organisms that induce cumulative damage at various levels. a 3rd , novel, concept is that ageing is mediated by vicious cycles.
In a detailed review, Lopez-Otin and colleagues (2013), who discuss ageing through the lens of the damage theory, propose nine metabolic “hallmarks” of ageing in various organisms but especially mammals:
genomic instability (mutations accumulated in nuclear DNA, in mtDNA, and within the nuclear lamina)
telomere attrition (the authors note that artificial telomerase confers non-
cancerous immortality to otherwise mortal cells)
epigenetic alterations (including DNA methylation patterns, post-translational modification of histones, and chromatin remodelling)
loss of proteostasis (protein folding and proteolysis)
deregulated nutrient sensing (relating to the expansion hormone/Insulin-like protein 1 signalling pathway, which is that the most conserved ageing-
controlling pathway in evolution and among its targets are the FOXO3/Sirtuin transcription factors and therefore the mTOR complexes, probably aware of caloric restriction)
mitochondrial dysfunction (the authors means however that a causal link between ageing and increased mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species is not any longer supported by recent research)
cellular senescence (accumulation of not dividing cells in certain tissues, a process induced especially by p16INK4a/Rb and p19ARF/p53 to prevent cancerous cells from proliferating)
stem cell exhaustion (in the authors’ view caused by damage factors like those listed above)
altered intercellular communication (encompassing especially
inflammation but possibly also other intercellular interactions)
There are three main metabolic pathways which may influence the speed of ageing, discussed below:
the FOXO3/Sirtuin pathway, probably aware of caloric restriction
the Growth hormone/Insulin-like protein 1 signalling pathway
the activity levels of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and (in plants) in chloroplasts.
It is likely that the majority of those pathways affect ageing separately because targeting them simultaneously results in additive increases in lifespan.
Ageing process and physiological changes
Changes in systema nervosum
Ageing is related to many neurological disorders because the capacity of the brain to transmit signals and communicate reduces. Loss of brain function is that the biggest fear among the elderly which incorporates loss
of the very persona from dementia (usually Alzheimer’s disease). Multiple other neurodegenerative conditions like Parkinson’s disease or the sudden devastation of a stroke also are increasingly common with age.
Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases are progressive neurodegenerative diseases related to aging. Alzheimer’s is characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration alongside a change in behavior and a decline in activities of daily living.
Alzheimer’s is that the commonest sort of pre-senile and senile psychosis. This disease causes neuron death and tissue loss throughout the brain, affecting nearly all its functions.
The cortex within the brain shrivels up and this damages the areas involved in thinking, planning, and remembering. The shrinkage during a neuron is particularly severe within the hippocampus (an area of the cortex that plays a key role in the formation of latest memories)
also because the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces within the brain) also grow larger. Alzheimer’s disease causes an overall misbalance among the elderly
by causing amnesia, changes in personality and behavior-like depression, apathy, social withdrawal, mood swings, distrust in others, irritability, and aggressiveness.
Nearly, 33 million Indians have neurological disorders, and these occur twice as often in rural areas. consistent with the planet Health Organisation (WHO), nearly 5% of men and 6% of girls aged 60 years or above are affected by Alzheimer’s-type dementia worldwide.
In India, the entire prevalence of dementia per 1000 elderly is 33.6%, of which vascular dementia constitutes approximately 39% and Alzheimer’s disease constitutes approximately 54%.
Stroke is another common explanation for mortality worldwide. However, in India, the prevalence rate of stroke among the elderly is reported to be very low compared to Western countries.
A mild decline within the overall accuracy is observed with the start of the 60s that progresses slowly, but sustained attention is sweet in healthy older adults. Cognitive function declines and impairments are frequently observed among the elderly. Normally, these changes occur as outcomes of distal or proximal life events, where distal events are youth experiences like cultural, physical, and social conditions that influence the functioning and cognitive development.
Cognition decline results from proximal factors (multiple serial cognitive processes) including processing speed, size of memory, inhibition of
extraneous environmental stimuli, and sensory losses. this is often a threat to the standard of lifetime of those affected individuals and their caregivers.
Impaired cognition among the elderly is related to an increased risk of injuries to self or others, the decline in functional activities of daily living, and an increased risk of mortality. Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly being recognized as a transitional state between normal aging and dementia.
Memory, learning, and intelligence
According to various studies, the effect of normal aging on memory may result from the subtly changing environment within the brain. The brain’s volume peaks at the first 20s and it declines gradually for the remainder of the life.
within the 40s, the cortex starts to shrink and other people start noticing the subtle changes in their ability to recollect or to try to quiet one task at a time.
Other key areas like neurons shrink or undergo atrophy and an outsized reduction within the extensiveness of connections among neurons (dendritic loss) is additionally noticed.
During normal aging, blood flow within the brain decreases and gets less efficient at recruiting different areas into operations. the entire group of changes happening within the brain with aging decreases the efficiency of
cell-to-cell communication, which declines the power to retrieve and learn. It also affects intelligence, especially fluid intelligence (problem-solving with a completely unique material requiring complex relations) declines rapidly after adolescence. Perceptual motor skills (timed tasks) decline with age.
Ageing includes a decline in accommodation (presbyopia), glare tolerance, adaptation, low-contrast activity, attentional visual fields, and color discrimination.
Changes occur in central processing and within the components of the attention. These numerous changes affect reading, balancing, and driving.
Ageing causes conductive and sensory hearing losses (presbycusis); the loss is primarily high tones, making consonants in speech difficult to discriminate.
Losing a sense of taste may be a common problem among adults. Taste acuity doesn’t diminish but salt detection declines. Perception of sweet is unchanged and bitter is exaggerated.
The salivary glands get affected, and therefore the volume and quality of saliva diminish. All changes combine to form eating less interesting. Studies show that the physiological decline within the density of the taste acuity
and papillae leads to a decline of gustatory function. In fact, studies done on taste dysfunction show that aging-associated changes within the density of taste acuity may affect taste function differently in several regions of the tongue.
taste declines during the traditional aging process. A study is done on the healthy elderly shows that after about 70 years aged, the taste threshold begins to extend leading to dysgeusia. Chewing problems related to loss of
teeth and the use of dentures also interfere with taste and cause a reduction in saliva production.
As we grow old, our olfactory function declines. Hyposmia (reduced ability to smell and to detect odors) is additionally observed with normal aging.
The sense of smell reduces with a rise in age, and this affects the power to discriminate between smells. A decreased sense of smell
can cause significant impairment of the standard of life, including taste disturbance and loss of delight from eating with resulting changes in weight and digestion.
It has been reported that quite 75% of individuals over the age of 80 years have evidence of major olfactory impairment. Many long-term studies show
evidence of a decline in olfaction considerably after the seventh decade. Another study found that 62.5% of 80–97-year-olds had olfactory impairments.
However, it’s widely accepted that taste disorders are far less prevalent than olfactory losses with age. Ageing also causes atrophy of neural structure neurons. Central processing is altered, leading to a decreased perception and less interest in food.
As we age, our sense of touch often declines thanks to skin changes and reduced blood circulation to the touch receptors or to the brain and medulla spinalis.
Minor dietary deficiencies like the deficiency of thiamine can also be an explanation for changes. The sense of touch also includes awareness of vibrations and pain. The skin, muscles, tendons, joints, and internal organs have receptors that detect touch, temperature, or pain.
A decline within the sense of touch affects simple motor skills, handgrip strength, and balance. Studies have shown that muscle spindle (sensory receptors within the muscle that primarily detects changes within the length of this muscle)
and mechanoreceptor (a sensory receptor or a cell that responds to mechanical stimuli like touch or sound) functions decline with ageing, further interfering with balance.
Changes in system
Normal ageing is characterised by a decrease in bone and muscle mass and a rise in adiposity. A decline in muscle mass and a discount in muscle strength cause risk of fractures,
frailty, reduction within the quality of life and loss of independence. These changes in the system reflect the ageing process also as consequences of reduced physical activity.
The muscle wasting in frail older persons is termed ‘sarcopenia’. This disorder results in a better incidence of falls and fractures and a functional decline.
Functional sarcopenia or age-related musculoskeletal changes affect 7% of elderly above the age of 70 years, and therefore the rate of degradation increases with time, affecting over 20% of the elderly by the age of 80.
Strength declines at 1.5% per annum, and this accelerates to the maximum amount as 3% per annum after 60 years aged. These rates were considered high in sedentary individuals and twice as high in men as compared with those in women.
However, studies show that on a mean, men have larger amounts of muscle mass and shorter survival than women. This makes sarcopenia potentially a greater public health concern among women than among men.
Skeletal muscle strength (force-generating capacity) also gets reduced with ageing depending upon genetic, dietary and, environmental factors also as lifestyle choices.
This reduction in muscle strength causes problems in physical mobility and activity of daily living. the entire amount of muscle fibres is decreased thanks to a depressed productive capacity of cells to supply protein.
there’s a decrease within the size of muscle cells, fibres and tissues alongside the entire loss of muscle power, muscle bulk and muscle strength of all major muscle groups like deltoids, biceps, triceps,
hamstrings, gastrocnemius (calf muscle), and so on. Wear and tear or wasting of the protective cartilage of joints occurs. The cartilage normally acts as a shock and a gliding agent that forestalls the friction injuries of the bone.
There are stiffening and fibrosis of animal tissue elements that reduce the range of motion and affect the movements by making them less efficient. As a part of the traditional cellular division process, telomere shortening occurs.
DNA is more exposed to chemicals, toxins and waste products produced within the body. This whole process increases the vulnerability of cells.
With ageing, toxins and chemicals build up within the body and tissues. As an entire, this damages the integrity of muscle cells. Physical activity also decreases with age,
thanks to a change in lifestyle. Somehow, the physiological changes of the muscles are aggravated by age-related neurological changes. Most of the muscular activities subsided efficient and fewer responsive with ageing as a result of a decrease within the nervous activity and nerve conduction.
A study was done by Williams et al, who evaluated the muscle samples from both elderly and young adults and suggested that limb muscles are 25–35% shorter and fewer responsive in elderly healthy individuals in
comparison to young adults. additionally, the general fat content of muscles was also higher in the elderly population, suggesting transformation within the normal remodelling with age. Age-related musculoskeletal changes
are far more prominent in fast-twitch muscle fibres as compared to slow-twitch muscle fibres. With ageing, the entire water content of the tissue decreases and loss of hydration also adds to the inelasticity and stiffness.
Alterations within the basal rate and slowing metabolism (as a part of the physiological ageing process) end in muscle changes. This results in the replacement of proteins with adipose tissue (that makes muscle less efficient).
Hormonal disorders can affect the metabolism of bones also as muscles. Research suggests that menopause in women marks the aggravation within the deterioration of musculoskeletal changes thanks to lack of
oestrogen that’s required for the remodelling of bones and soft tissues. Certain systemic conditions like vascular disorders or metabolic disorders, within the case of diabetes, affect the remodelling of
tissues because the rate or volume of nutritional delivery for the regeneration of cells is compromised. it’s vital to regulate the pathological processes to optimise healing and repairing the potential of the system.
Essential vitamins like vitamin D and vitamin C play major roles within the functional growth of muscles and bones. Lack of certain minerals like calcium, phosphorus and chromium are often the results of age-related
digestive issues. As such, it leads to an imbalance within the production of certain hormones like calcitonin and parathyroid that regulate the serum concentration of vitamins and minerals (due to tumours that are highly prevalent in elderly) or it causes a decreased absorption from the gut.
Age-related deterioration of muscular strength and balance control mechanisms has been related to reduced performance on functional tasks. Comparing the isometric strength levels of an equivalent muscle group,
the loss of strength begins sooner among women than among men. it’s reported that ladies are weaker than men within the absolute strength of varied muscle groups altogether stages of life. Various studies state that ladies have an extended lifetime, therefore the prevalence of disability among women is additionally more compared with men and it’s marked with advancing age
Body composition changes in adulthood
The physical body is formed from fat, lean tissue (muscles and organs), bones, and water. After the age of 40, people start losing their lean tissue.
Body organs like the liver, kidneys, and other organs start losing a number of their cells. This decline in muscle mass is related to weakness, disability, and morbidity.
The tendency to become shorter occurs among the various gender groups and altogether races. Height loss is related to aging changes within the bones, muscles,
and joints. Studies show that folks typically lose almost one-half inch (about 1 cm) every 10 years after age 40. Height loss is even more rapid after age 70. These changes are often prevented by following a healthy diet, staying physically active, and preventing and treating bone loss.
Changes within the total weight vary for men and women, as men often gain weight until about age 55 then begin to reduce later in life. this might be associated with a drop in the male steroid hormone testosterone.
Women usually gain weight until age 67–69 then begin to reduce. Weight loss later in life occurs partly because fat replaces lean muscle tissue and fat weighs but muscle.
Studies have also shown that older people may have almost one-third fatter compared to once they were younger. Fat tissue builds up towards the center of the body, including around the internal organs
Obesity in the elderly: prevalence
Today, as standards of living still rise, weight gain is posing a growing threat to the health of inhabitants from countries everywhere on the planet.
Obesity may be a chronic disease, prevalent in both developed and developing countries, and it’s affecting all age groups. Indeed, it’s now so
common that it’s replacing the more traditional public health concerns, like infectious diseases and undernutrition, because the commonest and significant contributors to unhealthiness
As per World Health Organisation (WHO), globally, approximately 2.3 billion elderly people are overweight and quite 700 million elderly people are obese.
Most elderly belonging to the center and high socio-economic groups are susceptible to obesity and complications associated with obesity, thanks to sedentary lifestyles and reduced physical mobility.
Obesity is taken into account together with the main risk factors which cause the onset and increase the severity of non-communicable diseases (NCDs).
it’s worldwide ill health, affecting the elderly from both developed and developing countries. In the elderly, obesity contributes to the first onset of chronic morbidities and functional impairments which cause premature mortality.
Obesity among elderly: developed countries
The population in developed countries has proportionally a greater number of older adults living to older ages, and therefore the prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among this age bracket.
The prevalence of obesity among the elderly belonging to us ranges from 42.5% in women to 38.1% in men, belonging to the age bracket 60–79 years. The prevalence differs for the elderly belonging to the age bracket 80 years and above, that is, 19.5% for females and 9.6% for males.
Comparatively, the prevalence of obesity in Europe is slightly lower but it’s still a big health issue. The prevalence of obesity among the elderly
within the UK is 22% among women and 12% among men aged 75 years or older. These statistics bode ill because the proportion of the world’s elderly population is growing rapidly
In Australia, the share of weight gain has been so high that rather than losing weight with a rise in life, men and ladies aged 60–70 weigh more on average than they did once they were 20 years younger (Figure 5).
Australian studies show that the prevalence of obesity among the elderly has increased within the age bracket of 60–69 years at about 24% for males and 30% for females,
whereas it’s less common among the elderly belonging to the age bracket 80 years and above. Studies show that the share of Australian elderly reporting increased abdominal fat is markedly increasing over the years.
supported waist circumference, quite 30% of elderly males and 44% of elderly females in Australia are currently at a substantially increased risk of NCDs.
Worldwide prevalence of obesity among elderly women and men with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2. Source: OECD. Analysis of health survey data.
Studies from the Netherlands show that obesity was present in 18% of men and 20% of girls belonging to the age bracket of 60 years and above. Also, the rise in waist circumference ranged from 40% among males to 56% among females.
In France, studies show that the prevalence of obesity among the elderly was relatively stable during the early years (1980–1991), 6.4–6.5% in males and 6.3–7.0% among females,
but studies from recent years [84, 85] have highlighted a pointy increase in obese elderly, 19.5% for both males and females; this prevalence rate decreased gradually after 70 years aged, that is, from 19.5 to 13.2%.
The Scottish Health Survey shows that in 10 years (2003–2013), the prevalence of obesity has increased because the body mass index (BMI) continues to rise in people 60–70 years aged,
especially among females. during this same period, there was an increased curve shown for the waist circumference (5–10 cm) in both the sexes between 50 and 70 years aged.
This inappropriate increase in waist circumference and a small increase in BMI within the Scottish Health Survey may indicate a considerable gain in visceral fat mass and loss of lean tissue that predisposes to unhealthiness within the obese elderly.
In Spain, 35% of subjects aged 65 years or older suffered from obesity (30.6% of males and 38.3% of females) and 61.6% had an increased waist circumference (50.9% of males and 69.7% of females)