what is junk food?
Junk food is unhealthful food that’s high in calories from sugar or fat, with little dietary fiber, protein, vitamins, minerals, or other important sorts of nutritional value.
Precise definitions vary by purpose and over time. Some high-protein foods, like meat prepared with saturated fat, could also be considered food. The term HFSS foods (high in fat, salt, and sugar) is employed synonymously.
nutriment and nutriment restaurants are often equated with food, although fast foods can’t be categorically described as food. Most food is very processed food.
Concerns about the negative health effects resulting from a junk food-heavy diet, especially obesity, have resulted in public health awareness campaigns, and restrictions on advertising and sale in several countries.
Junk food may be a pejorative dating back a minimum to the 1950s
Origin of the term
The term food dates back a minimum of to the first 1950s, although its coinage has been credited to Michael F. Jacobson of the middle for Science within the Public Interest, in 1972.
In 1952, the phrase appeared during a headline within the Lima, Ohio, News, “‘Junk Foods’ Cause Serious Malnutrition”, over a reprint of a 1948 article from the Ogden, Utah, Standard-Examiner, originally titled, “Dr.
Brady’s Health Column: More Junk Than Food”. within the article, Dr. Brady writes, “What Mrs. H calls ‘junk’ I call cheat food. that’s anything made principally of (1) white flour and or (2) refined white sugar or syrup.
for instance, light bread, crackers, cake, candy, frozen dessert soda, chocolate malted, sundaes, sweetened carbonated beverages.” The term cheat food is often traced back in newspaper mentions to a minimum of 1916.
Definition of junk food
In Andrew F. Smith’s Encyclopedia of food and nutriment, food is defined as “those commercial products, including candy, bakery goods, ice cream,
salty snacks, and soft drinks, which have little or no nutritional value but do have many calories, salt, and fats. While not all fast foods are junk foods, most are.
Fast foods are ready-to-eat foods served promptly after ordering. Some fast foods are high in calories and low in nutritional value, while other fast foods, like salads, could also be low in calories and high in nutritional value.”
Junk food provides empty calories, supplying little or none of the protein, vitamins, or minerals required for a nutritious diet. Many foods, like hamburgers, pizza,
and tacos, are often considered either healthy or food, counting on their ingredients and preparation methods. The more highly processed items usually fall into the food category,
including breakfast cereals that are mostly sugar or high fructose syrup and white flour or milled corn.
The United Kingdom’s Advertising Standards Authority, the self-regulatory agency for the united kingdom ad industry, uses nutrient profiling to define food.
Foods are scored for “A” nutrients (energy, saturated fat, total sugar, and sodium) and “C” nutrients (fruit, vegetables, and nut content, fiber, and protein).
The difference between A and C scores determines whether a food or beverage is categorized as HFSS (high in fat, salt, and sugar; a term synonymous with junk food).
In Panic Nation: Unpicking the Myths We’re Told About Food and Health, the food label is described as nutritionally meaningless: food is food, and if there’s zero nutritional value, then it is not food.
Co-editor Vincent Marks explains, “To label a food as ‘junk’ is simply different from claiming, ‘I disapprove of it.’ There are bad diets
– that’s, bad mixtures and quantities of food – but there are not any ‘bad foods’ except for people who became bad through contamination or deterioration.
Popularity and appeal
Junk food in its various forms is extremely popular, and an integral part of modern popular culture. In the US, annual nutriment sales are within the area of $160 billion,
compared to supermarket sales of $620 billion (a figure which also includes food within the sort of convenience foods, snack foods, and candy). In 1976,
the US Top 10 pop song, “Junk Food Junkie”, described a food addict who pretends to follow a healthy diet by day, while in the dark gorges on Hostess Twinkies and Fritos corn chips,
McDonald’s and KFC. Thirty-six years later, Time placed the Twinkie at #1 in a piece of writing titled, “Top 10 Iconic Junk Foods”: “Not only…a mainstay on our supermarket shelves and in our bellies,
but they have also been a staple in our popular culture and, above all, in our hearts. Often criticized for its lack of any nutritional value whatsoever, the Twinkie has managed to persevere as a cultural and gastronomical icon.”
America also celebrates an annual National food Day on July 21. Origins are unclear; it’s one among around 175 US food and drink days, most created by “people who want to sell more food”,
sometimes aided by elected officials at the request of a trade association or commodity group. “In honor of the day,” Time in 2014 published, “5 Crazy food Combinations”.
Headlines from other national and native media coverage include: “Celebrate National food Day With… Beer-Flavored Oreos?” (MTV); “National food Day: Pick your favorite unhealthy treats during this poll” (Baltimore);
“Celebrities’ favorite junk food” (Los Angeles); “A Nutritionist’s Guide to National food Day” with “Rules for Splurging” (Huffington Post); and “It’s National Food Day: Got snacks?” (Kansas City).
As for junk food’s appeal, there’s no definitive scientific answer, both physiological and psychological factors are cited. Food manufacturers spend billions of dollars on research
and development to make flavor profiles that trigger the human affinity for sugar, salt, and fat. Consumption leads to pleasurable, likely addictive, effects within the brain. At an equivalent time, massive marketing efforts are deployed, creating powerful brand loyalties that studies have shown will trump taste.
It is well-established that the poor eat more food overall than the more affluent, but the explanations for this aren’t clear. Few studies have focused on variations in food perception
consistent with socio-economic status (SES); some studies that have differentiated supported SES suggest that the economically challenged don’t perceive healthy food much differently than the other segment of the population.
Recent research into scarcity, combining behavioral science and economics, suggests that faced with extreme economic uncertainty, where even subsequent meal might not be a certainty,
judgment is impaired and therefore the drive is to the moment gratification of food, instead of to create the required investment within the longer-term benefits of a healthier diet
Bad effects of junk food
When food is consumed fairly often, the surplus fat, simple carbohydrates, and processed sugar found in food contribute to an increased risk of obesity, disorder,
and lots of other chronic health conditions. A case study on the consumption of fast foods in Ghana suggested an immediate correlation between the consumption of food and obesity rates.
The report asserts that obesity resulted in related complex health concerns such as an upsurge of attack rates. Studies reveal that as early because of the age of 30, arteries could begin clogging and lay the groundwork for future heart attacks.
Consumers also tend to eat an excessive amount in one sitting, and people who have satisfied their appetite with food are less likely to eat healthy foods like fruit or vegetables.
Testing on rats has indicated negative effects of food which will manifest likewise in people. A Scripps Research Institute study in 2008 suggested that food consumption alters brain activity during a manner almost like addictive drugs like cocaine and heroin. After many weeks with unlimited access to food , the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure; after the food was removed and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for 2 weeks rather than eating nutritious fare. A 2007 study within the British Journal of Nutrition found that female rats who eat food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their offspring.
Other research has been done on the impact of sugary foods on emotional health in humans and has suggested that consumption of food can negatively impact energy levels and emotional well-being.
In a study published within the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the frequency of consumption of 57 foods/drinks of 4000 children at the age of 4 and a half were collected by maternal report.
At age seven, the 4000 children got the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), with five scales: hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer
problems, emotional symptoms and pro-social behavior. a 1 variance increase in food was then linked to excessive hyperactivity in 33% of the themes, resulting in the conclusion that children consuming
excess food at the age of seven are more likely to be within the top third of the hyperactivity scale. There was no significant correlation between food and therefore the other scales. Read More about junk food
about some junk food
Kellogg’s Pop-Tarts are around since the 1960s. These pastries have a sweet filling and are often glazed with an outer coating of frosting also.
Pop-Tarts are often a tempting breakfast choice when you’re short on time. you’ll store them at a temperature and quickly prepare them during a toaster.
But despite their convenience, Pop-Tarts contain highly processed ingredients, including soyabean oil and refined flour.
Plus, they’re loaded with three sorts of sugar: refined white sugar, syrup, and high fructose syrup.
All of those contain large amounts of fructose, an easy sugar that has been linked to an increased risk of several diseases, including diabetes and heart condition (3Trusted Source).
The nutrition information on the Pop-Tarts label refers to the quantity in one pastry. However, each package contains two pastries, so this is often a more realistic serving size.
Two Frosted Strawberry Pop-Tarts contain 400 calories, 76 grams of carbs, but 2 grams of fiber and a mere 4 grams of protein.
This high-sugar, low-protein food may be a terrible option to begin your day.
2. Arby’s Curly Fries
French fries are one of the foremost popular nutriment items around.
In spite of their popularity, these deep-fried potatoes are very unhealthy.
Studies have linked deep-fried foods to inflammation, a heart condition, and impaired artery function, among other health problems.
What’s more, fries are extremely high in calories and fast-digesting carbs.
Arby’s Curly Fries are an ideal example. an outsized order contains 650 calories, 35 grams of fat, and 77 grams of carbs, only 7 of which are fiber
3. Popeyes Chicken Tenders
Popeyes may be a nutriment chain specializing in fried chicken. one among its newer menu offerings is an item called Handcrafted Tenders.
A three-piece serving of Mild Handcrafted Chicken Tenders contains 340 calories and 26 grams of carbs.
Although the calories in one serving of tenders appear to be a modest number compared to other nutriment entrees, this number can increase dramatically after adding dipping sauce, aside, and a soda.
In addition to being another deep-fried food, these tenders contain partially hydrogenated oils, more commonly referred to as trans fats.
Artificial or industrial trans fats are created by adding hydrogen to vegetable oils so as to form them more stable.
Trans fats are implicated in inflammation, a heart condition, and obesity, including increased belly fat storage.
Trans fats are outlawed in Europe and are far away from most US restaurants and nutriment establishments in anticipation of a ban which will be enforced beginning in 2018.
However, at this point, Handcrafted Tenders still contain one gram of trans fat per serving.
4. Cinnabon Caramel Pecanbon
Cinnabon is understood for the enticing aroma and gooey sweetness of their signature cinnamon rolls.
Classic Cinnabon cinnamon rolls are large and dense, rich in fat and carbs, and contain 880 calories each.
But these aren’t even the foremost unhealthy item on the menu. That honor is reserved for the Caramel Pecanbon.
The Caramel Pecanbon contains a whopping 1,080 calories, 51 grams of fat, and 146 grams of carbs, only 3 of which are fiber.
What’s more, 75 of these 146 grams of carbs come from added sugars. this is often over twice the quantity of added sugars the American Heart Association recommends because of the upper limit for the whole day
Depending on your personal nutrition needs, the Caramel Pecanbon may alright provide quite half your daily calories and carbs while falling
short on vitamins, minerals, and other valuable nutrients.
5. Starbucks Chocolate Mocha Frappuccino
Coffee may be a calorie-free beverage that gives a variety of impressive health benefits.
However, sweetened coffee drinks should be considered a liquid sort of food.
This is true for decent coffee drinks like mochas and lattes, also as frozen blended coffee beverages. A “grande” (medium) serving of those drinks typically contains 250 calories or more.
The worst Starbucks drink choice is that the chocolate Mocha Frappuccino with topping. A grande packs 520 calories and 65 grams of carbs, 64 of which come from sugar.
Moreover, research has shown that drinking liquid calories doesn’t trigger equivalent fullness signals as calories from solid food. Therefore, once you drink something sweet, you’re unlikely to compensate by eating less of other foods later
6. Outback Steakhouse Bloomin’ Onion
Although most food is often found within the snack aisle of the grocery or at nutriment chains, there also are some sit-down restaurant items that meet food criteria.
Take the Bloomin’ Onion at Outback Steakhouse, as an example.
Although considered an appetizer, it’s actually one of the highest calorie items on the whole menu.
One Bloomin’ Onion consists of a staggering 1,954 calories and 122 grams of carbs. It also contains 154 grams of fat, including quite 7 grams of trans fat, the sort you ought to seek to avoid completely.
While this very large appetizer is supposed to be shared by two or more people, even consuming one-quarter of this deep-fried dish will still add trans fat and tons of empty calories to your meal.
7. Burger King Oreo Shake
Milkshakes are popular at nutriment restaurants for several decades.
However, today’s shakes are sweeter and bigger than ever before, leading to calorie counts that are much above what you’ll expect.
The Oreo Milkshake from Burger King weighs in at 730 calories, which is quite the most hamburgers. additionally, it contains 121 grams of carbs, 100 from sugar alone.
Importantly, a minimum of half this sugar is fructose, which has been shown to contribute to a heart condition, insulin resistance, obesity, and other health problems.
8. Corn Dogs
Corn dogs are a State Fair favorite across the US. They’re made by dipping a frankfurter in cornbread batter then deep-frying it until golden brown.
The calorie and macronutrient values of corn dogs aren’t as concerning as many other junk foods. One corn dog contains 330 calories, 34 grams of carbs, and 10 grams of protein.
However, corn dogs contain processed meat, which several studies have linked to an increased risk of carcinoma and heart condition.
9. Dunkin’ Donuts Glazed Jelly Stick
Although most donuts are deep-fried sugary treats, some could also be far more harmful to your health than others.
One of the worst is that the Dunkin’ Donuts Glazed Jelly Stick, which contains 480 calories, 59 grams of carbs, and 25 grams of fat.
The first three ingredients listed are refined flour, sugar, and soyabean oil, meaning these are present within the largest quantities.
Frequent consumption of refined grains has been linked to a number of equivalent health problems as fructose, including inflammation, insulin resistance, and obesity
10. Dairy Queen Royal Reese’s Brownie Blizzard
Dairy Queen’s frozen treats are legendary.
They include dipped cones, sundaes, and a particularly popular thick shake with mixed-in ingredients referred to as a Blizzard.
All of Dairy Queen’s Blizzards are high in calories, carbs, and fat. However, one option is actually topped during this regard.
A large Royal Reese’s Brownie Blizzard Treat checks in at a whopping 1,510 calories, 189 grams of carbs, and 72 grams of fat.
Its 1.5 grams of trans fats are a mixture of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and therefore the present trans fats found in dairy.
11. Sugar-Sweetened Soda
Sugar-sweetened soda is one of the unhealthiest liquid junk foods you’ll consume thanks to its high fructose content.
In fact, research suggests that consuming fructose in beverage form could also be especially risky with reference to heart condition and obesity.
In one study, overweight and obese adults who consumed 25% of calories as fructose-sweetened beverages on a weight-maintenance diet experienced reduced insulin sensitivity, increased belly fat, and worsening of heart health markers (33Trusted Source).
A 16-ounce bottle of soda contains 200 calories and 52 grams of sugar, a minimum of half which is fructose.
12. KFC Famous Bowl
KFC may be a nutriment chain famous for its fried chicken.
In recent years, KFC has added other items to their menu, including chicken pot pies and chicken bowls.
The KFC Famous Bowl contains deep-fried chicken, mashed potatoes, corn, gravy, and cheese. It contains 710 calories, 82 grams of carbs, and 31 grams of fat, which is pretty standard for a quick food meal (35).
However, deep-frying is one of the foremost unhealthy methods of food preparation.
What’s more, the ingredients list for this bowl reveals several unhealthy items, including partially hydrogenated oils and syrup.
13. McDonald’s Triple Thick Milkshake
McDonald’s is best known for its burgers, including the large Mac and Quarter Pounder with Cheese.
Although these burgers are high in calories, carbs, and fat, their values pale as compared to those found during a certain McDonald’s milkshake.
A large Triple Thick Milkshake contains 1,100 calories — the amount you’d find in two Big Macs. additionally, it’s 193 grams of carbs, 135 from sugar.
This is a minimum of three to fourfold the quantity of sugar you ought to consume for the entire day.
The small amount of trans fat during this product occurs naturally within the milk and doesn’t carry the health risks that industrial trans fats do.
However, this shake’s extremely high calorie and sugar counts make it one of the unhealthiest food choices on the whole McDonald’s menu.
Anti-junk food measures
A number of nations have taken, or are considering, various sorts of legislative action to curb food consumption. In 2014, the United
Nations Special Rapporteur on the proper to health, Anand Grover, released his report, “Unhealthy foods, non-communicable diseases and therefore the right to health”
and involved governments to “take measures, like developing food and nutrition guidelines for healthy diets, regulating marketing and advertising of food, adopting consumer-friendly labeling of food products, and establishing accountability mechanisms for violations of the proper to health.”
An early, high-profile, and controversial plan to identify and curb food within the American diet was undertaken by the McGovern Committee (United States Senate Committee on Nutrition and Human
Needs, chaired by Senator George McGovern) between 1968 and 1977. Initially formed to research malnutrition and hunger within the US, the committee’s scope progressively expanded to incorporate environmental conditions that affected eating habits, like urban decay,
then focused on the diet and nutritional habits of the American public. The committee took issue with the utilization of salt, sugar, and fat in processed foods, noted problems with overeating and therefore the high percentage of ads for food on TV,
and stated that bad eating habits might be as deadly as smoking. The findings were heavily criticized and rebutted from many directions, including the food industry,
the American Medical Association, and within the committee itself. In 1977, the committee issued public guidelines under the title, Dietary Goals for us,
which became the predecessor to Dietary Guidelines for Americans, published every five years beginning in 1980 by the US Department of Health and Human Services.