optometristhealth

Does Optometrist is an Eye Doctor? Health Care

88 / 100

Definition of Optometrist –  An optometrist is an eye fixed doctor capable of examining the eyes for vision defects, signs of injury, ocular conditions, and problems with general eye health.

Optometrists are primary healthcare specialists. They differ from both ophthalmologists and opticians.

Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who can perform surgery for eye conditions. Opticians are practitioners who help fit vision-correcting devices to assist treat sight problems.

This article will examine what optometrists can treat and therefore the differences between optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians.

Optometrist scope of practice

Licensed by the state, optometrists can only perform procedures that fall within their scope of practice. The State Board of Optometry determines this, and it varies throughout us.

The three scopes of practice are:

Practice authority:  This includes foreign body removal and surgical procedures.

Prescriptive authority: This includes the prescription of certain medications and classifications of controlled substances, enforced by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).

Surgical authority:  This includes the treatment of the lacrimal system, like the orbital structures for tear production and drainage.
Optometrists must hold a license in each state, which is subject to renewal.

Differences between optometrists, ophthalmologists, and opticians

All optometrists provide general eye care, while some concentrate on different areas. Optometrists offer treatment for common eye complaints, like dry eyes and eye infections.

Optometrists

The job requires a bachelor’s degree and admission into optometry school for an additional degree. A 4-year program results in the official title doctor of optometry. Despite the title, however, optometrists don’t get to attend the school of medicine.

Conditions optometrists treat
The following are a number of conditions that optometrists can treat.

Glaucoma
Glaucoma refers to wreck to the nervus opticus, which connects the attention to the brain. it’s the number one explanation for irreversible blindness within the U.S., affecting quite 3 million people. An optometrist can diagnose glaucoma and devise a treatment plan.

Cataracts
Cataracts occur when the lens within the eye develops cloudy patches. These can grow larger, seriously affecting vision, and potentially causing blindness.

Although an optometrist can diagnose cataracts and prescribe eyeglasses to assist with symptoms, specialist surgery from an ophthalmologist could also be necessary. An optometrist also will provide preoperative and postoperative care.

Retinal disorders
Most retinal disorders share similar symptoms, like blurred vision or vision loss. These disorders include floaters, retinal tear or detachmentdegeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and epiretinal membrane.

Optometrists can diagnose retinal disorders, and that they may refer an individual to an ophthalmologist if treatment is important.

Myopia
Also referred to as nearsightedness, myopia may be a vision condition that creates that specialize in distant objects difficult.

Treatments include eyeglasses, contact lenses, corneal refractive therapy laser procedures, or surgery (in extreme cases). An ophthalmologist will usually perform laser or surgical procedures.

Color blindness
Optometrists often check children for color blindness in routine assessments. Diagnosis is additionally straightforward as an adult. there’s currently no cure, but eyeglasses and get in touch with lenses can help, as can various visual aids.

Systemic diseases
Some systemic diseases have ocular manifestations. Optometrists can help detect diabetes, high blood pressure, thyroid cancers, and HIV.

What do optometrists do?
The job itself is varied, from conducting eye exams, evaluating vision, and assessing eye conditions to writing prescriptions, recommending further treatments, and providing preoperative and postoperative care.

An optometrist also can concentrate on areas like contact lenses, sports vision, education, and research.

An optometrist may go in many various environments. These include:

*a solo or group private practice
*a community clinic, Veterans Affairs center, or hospital
*an academic setting
*a research facility
*retail, optical, or corporate setting
*the military
Statistics show that slightly below 40,000 people held jobs as optometrists in 2019, with a mean annual wage of $122,980.

Ophthalmologists

An ophthalmologist may be a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathic medicine who can work as a physician and surgeon. Entry requirements are more stringent than those related to optometry, with extensive training required.

Generally, this may take the shape of 4 years of school, 4 years of school of medicine, and 3–8 years of additional specialized training.

Ophthalmologists are the sole practitioners with medical training to diagnose all eye and vision problems. Ophthalmologists and optometrists often work as a team.

Conditions ophthalmologists treat
Ophthalmologists are liable for the treatment of just about all eye conditions and visual issues.

Common surgeries for an ophthalmologist may include:

*cataract surgery
*glaucoma surgery
*strabismus surgery (for squints)
*corneal transplantation
*surgery for retinal disorders
*oculoplastic surgery
*orbital surgery
The career path of an ophthalmologist is often varied, from treating disease and performing surgery to prescribing eyeglasses and get in touch with lenses. However, due to their extensive training, ophthalmologists also can enter a research project and sub-specialization. eye doctor.

In 2015, there have been just over 19,200 active ophthalmologists within the U.S. The mean annual wage of a physician-ophthalmologist in 2020 is $295,431.

History

The history of “optometry” (refracting opticians) is often traced back to the first studies on optics and image formation by the attention. The origins of optical science (optics, as taught during a basic physics class) go back a couple of thousand years BC as evidence of the existence of lenses for adornment has been found in Greece and therefore the Netherlands.[citation needed]

It is unknown when the primary spectacles were made. British scientist and historian Sir Joseph Needham, in his Science and Civilization in China, reported the earliest mention of spectacles was in Venetian guild regulations circa 1300. He suggested that the occasional claim that spectacles were invented in China may have come from a paper by Laufer. Per Needham, the paper by Laufer had many inconsistencies, which the references within the document employed by Laufer weren’t within the original copies but added during the Ming. Early Chinese sources mention the eyeglasses were imported. eye doctor.

Alternatively, research by David A. Goss within us shows they’ll have originated within the late 13th century in Italy as stated during a manuscript from 1305 where a monk from Pisa named Rivalta stated “It isn’t yet 20 years since there was discovered the art of creating eyeglasses”.[4] Spectacles were manufactured in Italy, Germany, and therefore the Netherlands by 1300. Needham stated spectacles were first made shortly after 1286.

In 1907, Professor Berthold Laufer, who was a German American anthropologist, stated in his history of spectacles ‘the opinion that spectacles originated in India is of the best probability which spectacles must are known in India before in Europe’. However, as already mentioned, Joseph Needham showed that the references Laufer cited weren’t within the older and best versions of the document Laufer used, leaving his claims unsupported. eye doctor.

In Sri Lankait’s well-documented[citation needed]that during the reign of King Bhuvanekabahu the IV (AD 1346 – 1353) of the Gampola period the traditional tradition of camera lens making with a natural stone called Diyatarippu was given royal patronage. a couple of the craftsmen still live and practice within the original hamlet given to the exponents of the craft by royal decree. But the date of King Bhuvanekabahu is decades after the mention of spectacles within the Venetian guild regulations and after the 1306 sermon by Dominican friar Giordano da Pisa, where da Pisa said the invention of spectacles was both recent which he had personally met the inventor.

The German word brille (eyeglasses) springs from Sanskrit vaidya. Etymologically, brille springs from beryl, Latin beryllium, from Greek beryllos, from Prakrit Trulia, Valeriya, from Sanskrit vaidya, of Dravidian origin from the town of Velur (modern Belur). Medieval Latin bacillus was also applied to eyeglasses, hence German brille, from Middle German braille, and French vesicles (plural) spectacles, altered from Old French vehicle.

Benito Daza de Valdes published the primary full book on opticians in 1623, where he mentioned the utilization and fitting of eyeglasses. In 1692, William Molyneux wrote a book on optics and lenses where he stated his ideas on myopia and problems associated with close-up vision. The scientists Claudius Ptolemy and Kepler also contributed to the creation of optometry. Kepler discovered how the retina within the eye creates vision. From 1773 until around 1829, Young discovered the incapacity of astigmatism and it had been George Biddell Airy who designed glasses to correct that problem that included sphero-cylindrical lens. eye doctor.

Although the term optometer appeared within the 1759 book A Treatise on the Eye: the way and Phenomena of Vision by Scottish physician William Porterfield, it had been not until the first twentieth-century within us and Australia that “optometry” began to be wont to describe the profession. By the first twenty-first century, however, marking the excellence with dispensing opticians, it had become the internationally accepted term.

Training, licensing, representation, and scope of practice

Optometry is officially recognized in many jurisdictions.[14] Most have regulations concerning education and practice. Optometrists, like many other healthcare professionals, are required to participate in ongoing continuing education courses to remain current on the newest standards of care. the planet Council of Optometry features a web resource that gives basic information on eye care providers for quite 46 countries.

Africa
In 1993 there have been five countries in Africa with optometric teaching institutes: Sudan, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, and Tanzania.

Sudan
Sudan’s major institution for the training of optometrists is that the Faculty of Optometry and Visual Sciences (FOVS), originally established in 1954 because the Institute of Optometry in Khartoum; the Institute joined with the Ministry of upper Education in 1986 because the High Institute of Optometry, and ultimately was annexed into Alneelain University in 1997 when it had been renamed to the FOVS. Currently, eye doctor.

the FOVS has the subsequent programs: 1) BSc optometry in 5 years with sub-specialization in either orthoptics, contact lenses, ocular photography, or ocular neurology; 2) BCs in ophthalmic technology, requiring four 4 years of training; and BCs within the optical dispensary, achieved in 4 years. The FOVS also offers MSc and Ph.D. degrees in Optometry.

The FOVS is that the only institute of its kind in Sudan and was the primary institution of upper education in Optometry within the Middle East and Africa.[citation needed] In 2010, Alneelain University Eye Hospital was established as a part of the FOVS to expand training capacity and to serve the broader Sudanese community.

Ghana
The Ghana Optometric Association (GOA) regulates the practice of Optometry in Ghana. After the six-year training at any of the 2 universities offering the course, the O.D degree is awarded. The new optometrist must write a qualifying exam, after which the optometrist is admitted as a member of the GOA, resulting in the award of the title MGOA. eye doctor.

Mozambique
The first optometry course in Mozambique was started in 2009 at Universidade Lurio, Nampula. The course is a component of the Mozambique Eyecare Project. The University of Ulster, Dublin Institute of Technology, and Brien Holden Vision Institute are supporting partners.

Nigeria
In Nigeria, optometry is regulated by the Optometry and Dispensing Opticians Registration Board of Nigeria established under the Optometry and Dispensing Opticians ( Registration ETC ) Act of 1989 (Cap O9 Laws of Federation of Nigeria 2004). The Boards publishes from time to time lists of approved qualifications and training institutions within the federal gazette. The Doctor of Optometry degree is awarded after a six-year of training at one of the accredited universities in Imo, Edo, and Abia states. optometrist eye doctor.

Bangladesh
From 2010 Optometry was first introduced in Bangladesh in the Institute of Community Ophthalmology Under Medicine Faculty of University of Chittagong http://icoedu.org. This institute offers a four years Bachelor of Science in Optometry (B.Optom) course. Currently, there are 120 Graduated Optometrists in Bangladesh. The association which controls the standard of Optometry practice everywhere in the country is known as as ‘Optometrists Association of Bangladesh’ which is additionally a rustic member of the council of Optometry(WCO).

In the year 2018, Chittagong Medical University formed, and therefore the Bsc. in Optometry course shifted to the present University.

In Bangladesh, Optometrists perform primary eye care like Diagnosis and first management of some ocular diseases, Prescribe Eye Glasses, Low vision rehabilitation, provide vision therapy, contact practice, and everyone sort of Orthoptic evaluations and management.

Hong Kong
The Optometrists Board of the Supplementary Medical Professions Council regulates the profession in Hong Kong. Optometrists are listed in separate parts of the register supported by their training and skill. Registrants are subject to restrictions counting on the part they’re listed in.

those that pass the examination on refraction conducted by the Board could also be registered to Part III, thereby restricted to practice only work associated with refraction. those that have a better Certificate in Optometry or have passed the Board’s optometry examination could also be registered to Part II, eye doctor.

thereby restricted in their use of diagnostic agents, but may otherwise practice freely. Part I optometrists may practice without restrictions and usually hold a baccalaureate or knowledgeable Diploma.

There are around 2000 optometrists registered in Hong Kong, 1000 of which are Part I. there’s one Part I optometrist to about 8000 members of the general public. Polytechnic University runs the sole optometry school. It produces around 35 Part I optometrists a year.

India
In 2010, it had been estimated that India needs 115,000 optometrists; whereas India has approximately 9,000 optometrists (4-year trained) and 40,000 optometric assistants/vision technicians (2-year trained). so as to stop blindness or visual defect more well-trained optometrists are required in India.

The definition of optometry differs considerably in several countries on the planet. India needs more optometry schools offering four-year degree courses with a syllabus almost like that effective in those countries where to practice of optometry is statutorily regulated and well established with an internationally accepted definition. optometrist eye doctor.

In 2013, it had been reported within the Indian Journal of Ophthalmology that poor spectacle compliance amongst school children in rural Pune resulted in significant vision loss.

In 2015, it had been reported within the Optometry and Vision Science that, optometrists got to be more involved in providing core optometry services like sight and low vision. eye doctor.

Training in India
At present, there are quite fifty schools of optometry in India. within the year 1958, two schools of optometry were established, one at Gandhi Eye Hospital, Aligarh in Uttar Pradesh, and another one at Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital, Hyderabad in Telangana,

under the second five-year plan by the Director-General of Health Services of state of India. These schools offered diplomas in optometry courses of two years duration validated by State Medical Faculties.

Subsequently, four more schools were opened across India situated at Sitapur Eye Hospital, Sitapur in Uttar Pradesh, Chennai (formerly Madras) in Tamil Nadu, Bengalooru (formerly Bangalore) in Karnataka, and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum) in Kerala.

The Elite School of Optometry (ESO) was established in 1985 in Chennai and was the primary to supply a four-year degree course.

Academic degrees like Bachelor of Optometry, Master of Optometry, and Doctor of Philosophy in Optometry are awarded in India by the schools recognized by the University Grants Commission (India), a statutory body liable for the upkeep of standards of upper education in India.

Optometrists across India are encouraged to register with the Optometry Council of India, a self-regulatory body registered under the Indian Company Act. eye doctor.

Malaysia
It takes four years to finish a degree in Optometry. Today, optometry courses are well received by citizens. More universities and better education studies are close to implementing the courses, e.g., the National Institute of Ophthalmic Sciences in Petaling Jaya whereby it’s the tutorial arm of The Tun Hussein Onn National Eye Hospital. Other public universities that provide this course are University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), optometrist’s eye doctor

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). there’s also a personal university that gives this course like Management and Science University (MSU) and SeGi University. After completing the study in Degree in Optometry, the optometrist who practices in Malaysia must register under the Malaysian Optical Council (MOC) which is that the organization under the Ministry of Health.

The Association of Malaysian Optometrist (AMO) is the only body that represents the Malaysian optometrist profession. All of the members are either local or overseas graduates within the field of Optometry

optometrist Eye doctor

Pakistan
Optometry is taught as a five/four-year Doctor/ Bachelors/ Bachelors with Honors course at many institutions notable among which are Department of Optometry & Vision Sciences (DOVS) FAHS, ICBS, Lahore, Pakistan Institute of Community Ophthalmology (PICO) Peshawar, Pakistan institute of Rehabilitation science Isra University campus Islamabad (PIRS), College of Ophthalmology & Allied Vision Sciences (COAVS) Lahore and Al-Shifa Institute of Ophthalmology Islamabad. eye doctor.

After graduation, the optometrists can join a four-tiered service delivery level (Centre of Excellence, Tertiary/Teaching, District headquarter, and sub-district /Tehsil headquarters). M.Phil in Optometry is additionally available at select institutions like King Edward Medical University, Lahore Department of Optometry & Vision Sciences (DOVS) FAHS, ICBS, Lahore started bridging programs for Bachelors/ Bachelors with Honors to become Doctor of Optometry OD, Post Professional Doctor of Optometry(PP-OD),

Transitional Doctor of Optometry(t-OD). Optometry isn’t yet a regulated field in Pakistan as there’s no professional licensing board or authority liable for issuing practice licenses to qualified optometrists. This creates difficulty for Pakistani optometrists who wish to register abroad. The University of Lahore has recently launched the Doctor of optometry (OD). Imam Hussain Medical University also has launched a Doctor of Optometry Program. Chairman Imam Hussain Medical University Dr. Sabir Hussain Babachan has vowed to manage OD curriculum consistent with international standard.

Philippines
Optometry is regulated by the Professional Regulation Commission of the Philippines. To be eligible for licensing, each candidate must have satisfactorily completed a doctor of optometry course at an accredited institution and demonstrate good moral character with no previous record of professional misconduct. Professional organizations of optometry within the Philippines include the Optometric Association of the Philippines and Integrated Philippine Association of Optometrists, Inc. (IPAO). eye doctor.

Saudi Arabia
In Saudi Arabia, optometrists must complete a five-year doctor of optometry degree from Qassim University and King Saud University also need to complete a two-year residency.

Singapore
Tertiary education for optometrists takes 3 years at the subsequent institutions.

Singapore Polytechnic – Diploma in Optometry Singapore Polytechnic

Ngee Ann Polytechnic – Diploma in Optometry Ngee Ann Polytechnic

Thailand
Since late 1990, Thailand has set a goal to supply quite 600 optometrists to satisfy the minimal public demands and international standards in vision care. There are quite three university degree programs in Thailand. Each program accepts students that have completed grade 12th or the third year in high school (following the US education model). These programs offer a “Doctor of Optometry” degree to graduates from the program which will take six years to finish the courses. Practicing optometrists also will be required to pass licensing examinations (three parts examinations) that are administrated through a committee under the Ministry of Public Health.

Nowadays, the amount of practicing optometrists in Thailand remains but 100 (2015). However, it’s projected that the amount of practicing optometrists in Thailand will greatly increase within the subsequent ten years. within the theoretical scenario, the number of optometrists should be ready to meet minimal public demands around 2030 or earlier.

Europe
Since the formation of the ECU Union, “there exists a robust movement, headed by the Association of European Schools and Colleges of Optometry (AESCO), to unify the profession by creating a European-wide examination for optometry” and presumably also standardized practice and education guidelines within EU countries.[32] the primary examinations of the new European Diploma in Optometry were held in 1998 and this was a landmark event for optometry in continental Europe.[33]

France
There is no regulatory framework and optometrists are sometimes trained by completing an apprenticeship at an ophthalmologists’ private office.

Germany
Optometric tasks are performed by ophthalmologists and professionally trained and authorized opticians. eye doctor.

Greece
Hellenic Ministry of Education founded the primary department of Optometry at the Technological Educational Institute of Patras in 2007. After protests from the department of Optics at the Technological Educational Institute of Athens (the only department of Optics in Greece, until 2006), the govt changed the names of the departments to “Optics and Optometry” and included lessons in both optics and optometry. Optometrists-Opticians need to complete 4-year undergraduate honors. Then the graduates are often admitted to postgraduate courses in Optometry at universities around the world.

Since 2015, a Master of Science (MSc) course in Optometry is obtainable by the Technological Educational Institute of Athens.

The Institute of Vision and Optics (IVO) of the University of Crete focuses on the sciences of vision and is active within the fields of research, training, technology development, and provision of medical services. Professor Ioannis Pallikaris has received numerous awards and recognitions for the Institute’s contribution to ophthalmology. In 1989 he performed the primary LASIK procedure on a person’s eye doctor.

Hungary
Optometrist education takes 4 years within the medical universities in Hungary, and that they will get a Bachelor of Science degree. They add networks and retail stores and personal optics, only a few are located within the Health Care care system as ophthalmologists as an assistant.

Ireland
The profession of Optometry has been represented for over a century by the Association of Optometrists, Ireland [AOI]. In Ireland, an optometrist must first complete a four-year degree in optometry at the Dublin Institute of Technology. Following successful completion of the degree, an optometrist must then complete professional qualifying examinations to enter the register of the Opticians Board [Bord na Radharcmhaistoiri]. Optometrists must be registered with the Board to practice within the Republic of Eire.

The A.O.I. runs a comprehensive continuing education and professional development program on behalf of Irish optometrists. The legislation governing optometry was drafted in 1956. Some feel that the legislation restricts optometrists from using their full range of skills, training, and equipment for the advantage of the Irish public. The amendment to the Act in 2003 addressed one among the foremost significant restrictions: the utilization of cycloplegic drugs to look at children.
eye doctor.
Italy
In Italy Optometry is an unregulated profession. it’s taught at seven universities: Padua, Turin, Milan, Salento,[36] Florence, Naples, and Rome, as three years course (like a BSc) of “Scienze e tecnologie fisiche” as a sector of the department of physics. Additionally, courses are available at some private institutions (as at Vinci Institute near Firenze) that provide advanced professional education for already qualified opticians (most of the Italian optometrists also are qualified opticians, i.e. “ottico abilitato”). within the last thirty years, several verdicts from the supreme court (Cassazione) prove that optometry may be a free practice and has a truly educational path.

Norway
In Norway, the optometric profession has been regulated as a healthcare profession since 1988. After a three-year bachelor program, one can practice basic optometry. a minimum of one year in clinical practice qualifies for a post-degree half-year sandwich course in touch lens fitting, which is regulated as a healthcare specialty. A separate regulation for the utilization of diagnostic drugs in optometric practice was introduced in 2004.

Russia
In Russia, optometry education has been accredited by the agency of Health and Social Development.[citation needed] There are only two educational institutions that teach optometry in Russia: Saint Petersburg Medical Technical College, formerly referred to as St. Petersburg College of Medical Electronics and Optics, and therefore the Helmholtz Research Institute for Eye Diseases. They both belong and are regulated by the Ministry of Health. The optometry program may be a four-year program. It includes one to 2 science foundation years, one year focused on clinical and proficiency skills, and one year of clinical rotations in hospitals. Graduates take college/state examinations then receive a specialist diploma. This diploma is valid for less than five years and must be renewed every five years after receiving additional training at state-accredited programs. eye doctor.

The scope of practice for optometrists in Russia includes refraction, contact fitting, spectacles construction and lens fitting (dispensing), low vision aids, foreign body removal, referrals to other specialists after clinical condition diagnoses (management of diseases within the eye).

United Kingdom
Licensing
Optometrists within the UK are regulated by the overall Optical Council under the Opticians Act 1989 and distinguished from medical practitioners.[38] Registration with the GOC is mandatory to practice optometry within the UK. Members of the school of Optometrists (incorporated by a charter granted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II)[39] may use the suffix MCOptom.

The National Health Service provides free sight tests and spectacle vouchers for youngsters and people on very low incomes. The elderly and people with some chronic conditions like diabetes get free periodic tests.[40] Treatment for eye conditions like glaucoma and cataracts is free and checked for during normal eye examinations.

Training
In the UK, optometrists need to complete a 3 or 4 (Scotland) year undergraduate honors followed by a minimum of a one-year “pre-registration period”, (internship), where they complete clinical practice under the supervision of a professional and experienced practitioner. During this year the pre-registration candidate is given a variety of quarterly assessments, often including temporary posting at a hospital, and on successfully passing all of those assessments, a final one-day set of examinations (details correct for candidates from 2006 onwards). Following successful completion of those assessments and having completed one year’s supervised practice, the candidate is eligible to register as an optometrist with the overall Optical Council (GOC) and, should they so wish, are entitled to membership of the school of Optometrists. Twelve universities offer Optometry within the UK: Anglia Ruskin, Aston, Bradford, Cardiff, City, Glasgow Caledonian, Hertfordshire, Manchester, University of Plymouth, Ulster University at Coleraine, University of Portsmouth and [[the University of the West of England.

In 2008 the united kingdom moved forward to supply the Doctor of Optometry postgraduate program. This became available at the Institute of Optometry in London in partnership with London South Bank University. The Doctor of Optometry postgraduate degree is additionally offered at one other UK institution. Aston University

Scope of Practice
In 1990, a survey of the opinions of British medical practitioners regarding the services provided by British optometrists was administered by Agarwal at City, University of London. A majority of respondents were in favor of optometrists extending their professional role by treating external eye conditions and prescribing broad-spectrum topical antibiotics through additional training and certification. eye doctor.

Since 2009, optometrists within the UK are ready to undertake additional postgraduate training and qualifications that allow them to prescribe medications to treat and manage eye conditions. There are currently three registerable specialties:

Additional supply specialtyto write down orders for, and provide in an emergency, a variety of medicine additionally to those ordered or supplied by a traditional optometrist.
Supplementary prescribing specialty – to manage a patient’s clinical condition and prescribe medicines consistent with a clinical management plan found out in conjunction with an independent prescriber, like a GP or ophthalmologist, or qualified optometrist.
Independent prescribing specialty – to require responsibility for the clinical assessment of a patient, establish a diagnosis, and determine the clinical management required, including prescribing where necessary. 

Download kinemaster diamond apk v4.12 free for Android

88 / 100

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Back to top button